Up Learn – A Level Chemistry (aqa) – Organic Synthesis
Map of Organic Synthesis: Part 1
Outlining half of the organic reactions you’ll learn in Y13
Here, we have all the reactions we looked at in year 12
Now, when we studied the production of amines from halogenoalkanes [zoom in on this rxn and remove everything else so there’s more space]
We saw that we add excess ammonia so that we produce amines like this [show methylamine, ethylamine and propylamine]
These are all primary amines
So, we can change amine here to primary amine. [1o amine]
Next, we saw another method to produce primary amines
We saw that we can reduce a nitrile to primary amine using…
We can reduce a nitrile to a primary amine using hydrogen gas and a metal catalyst like nickel.
Next, we saw that if we react a primary amine with excess halogenoalkane, we can produce… [add a new dashed arrow from 1o amine w/ excess halogenoalkane] [This is all AMN3 stuff]
Primary amines have a lone pair of electrons [Show ethylamine w/ lone pair on nitrogen]
So, in excess halogenoalkane, a primary amine can undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction to produce a secondary amine. [add nucleophilic substitution to arrow]
Then, these secondary amines also have a lone pair of electrons
So, this secondary amine can undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with the halogenoalkane to form a tertiary amine.
And finally, tertiary amines also have a lone pair
So, this tertiary amine can undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with the halogenoalkane to form a quaternary ammonium salt.
And so, we can add all of these reactions to our synthesis diagram like this [zoom back out and add the 1o amine – – > 2o amine etc. bit]
Next, we saw that primary amines can form secondary amides
For this reaction, we can react a primary amine with…
To form a secondary amide, we can react a primary amine with either an acyl chloride or an acid anhydride [add acyl chloride / acid anhydride below and add both arrows towards 2o amide]
And the two react via a…
To form a secondary amide, a primary amine reacts with either an acyl chloride or acid anhydride via a nucleophilic addition / elimination reaction.
And finally, when we react an acyl chloride or acid anhydride with ammonia…
When we react an acyl chloride or acid anhydride with ammonia, they undergo a nucleophilic addition elimination reaction to form a primary amide!
To sum up, our diagram for organic synthesis so far…
Our diagram for organic synthesis so far looks like this